What are some common FTTH network topologies?

Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH) network topologies are diverse, offering varying advantages based on deployment needs.

What are some common FTTH network topologies?

Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH) network topologies are diverse, offering varying advantages based on deployment needs. Point-to-Point (P2P) topology provides dedicated fiber lines to individual homes, ensuring high bandwidth and reliability but may be costly. Passive Optical Network (PON) topology, like GPON and EPON, shares fiber among multiple users, offering cost-efficiency but potentially lower bandwidth.

Hybrid Fiber-Coaxial (HFC) combines fiber and coaxial cables, balancing cost and performance. Ring topology enhances reliability by providing redundant paths. Mesh topology interconnects nodes for resilience. Each topology caters to unique requirements, but all aim to deliver high-speed, reliable internet access to homes via fiber optics.

Fiber-To-The-Home (FTTH) networks can be designed using various topologies. 

Let’s explore a few common ones:

Centralised Architecture:

  • In this approach single-stage splitters are placed in a central hub, forming a star topology.
  • A typical configuration involves using a 1x32 splitter in a fiber distribution hub (FDH).
  • The hub can be positioned anywhere in the network.
  • The 1x32 splitter connects directly to a GPON optical line terminal (OLT) in the central office.
  • On the other side of the splitter, 32 fibers are routed to customers’ homes, where they connect to an optical network terminal (ONT).
  • Essentially, the PON network connects one OLT port to 32 ONTs.
  • This centralized architecture simplifies deployment but requires more fiber1.

Cascaded Architecture:

  • In the cascaded approach, multi-stage splitters are used, creating a tree-and-branch topology.
  • For instance, a 1x4 splitter may reside in an outside plant enclosure, directly connected to an OLT port.
  • Each of the four fibers leaving this stage 1 splitter is routed to an access terminal housing a 1x8, stage 2 splitter.
  • In this scenario, a total of 32 fibers (4x8) reach 32 homes.
  • It’s possible to have more than two splitting stages in a cascaded system, with varying overall split ratios (e.g., 1x16, 1x32, 1x64)1.

Other FTTH Network Structures:

  • Home Run: Each customer has a dedicated fiber directly connected to the central office. Simple but costly due to extensive fiber usage.
  • Active Star Networks: Similar to home run, but with active electronics at the customer end. Used for business applications.
  • Passive Optical Networks (PON): Shared fiber infrastructure with splitters distributing signals to multiple customers. GPON and EPON are common PON technologies23.

Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH) network topologies offer diverse options to meet varying needs. From dedicated Point-to-Point (P2P) connections to cost-efficient Passive Optical Network (PON) solutions, each topology serves to bring high-speed internet access to homes, enhancing connectivity and enabling a wide range of digital services. 

Remember that the choice of topology impacts deployment costs, performance, and future scalability. Connect to Polosoft Technologies if you need FTTH or HFC Network design and drafting for your upcoming projects.

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